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Abstract: The design of air conditioning system of Xinjiang Resort Hotel was presented, including design parameters, cold and heat sources, water system, air system, smoke control and exhaust, and automatic control method.
Keywords: severe cold zones, resort hotel, floor panel heating, heat recovery, indoor temperature control, energy saving
1 Project Overview
This project is located in Shuixigou Town, Urumqi County, Urumqi City, Xinjiang. It is located in the Nanshan Scenic Area of Urumqi. The scenic area is shaded by trees in summer and full of grass, making it the first choice for summer vacation; in winter, it is a traditional ski resort in Xinjiang. More than a dozen ski resorts, large and small. The local tourism resources are very rich. At present, there are many small and medium-sized resorts and family hotels. There has been no large-scale and large-scale resort hotel project development. As the 13th Winter Games will be held locally in January 2016; this project has been promoted Rapid development and construction. This project is a comprehensive resort hotel integrating conference, accommodation, catering, leisure and entertainment. The total construction area is about 29601m? , The building height is 18.90m. One floor underground and four floors above ground. The second floor is the underground garage, equipment room and hotel annex room. On the ground floor are stepped lecture halls, conference centers, meeting rooms, grand banquet halls, dining boxes, flavor restaurants, central kitchens, leisure and entertainment venues, swimming pools, and saunas. The first floor is the hotel lobby, western restaurant, western kitchen and badminton hall, guest rooms. The second to third floors are guest rooms, of which there is a presidential suite on the third floor.
2 Design parameters and cooling and heating load indicators
2.1 Thermal parameters of building envelope
This project is located in Urumqi City, and the building climate zone is Severe Cold Zone B.
The building shape factor: S=0.18.
Outer wall: the first layer is 60mm thick phenolic board plus thousands of stone, the heat transfer coefficient K=0.42W/(m?.K); the second layer is 60mm thick XPS board plus real stone paint, the heat transfer coefficient K=0.37W/ (M?.K); the walls are all 200mm aerated concrete blocks (class 500).
Roof: 100mm thick XPS insulation board, heat transfer coefficient K=0.30 W/(m?.K).
Outer window: aluminum alloy (thermal bridge) ordinary hollow glass window, heat transfer coefficient K=2.50W/(m?.K).
Overhead or externally raised floor slabs with the bottom surface in contact with outdoor air: 100mm thick XPS insulation board, heat transfer coefficient K=0.31W/(m?.K).
2.2 Main design parameters
The main design parameters are shown in Table 1".
2.3 Cooling and heating load indicators
Through calculation, the cooling and heating load indexes are as follows: 1) Is the heat load index of radiant floor heating 47W/m? 2) Air conditioning heating heat load index is 85W/m; 3) radiator heating heat load index is 32W/m2; 4) Water system air conditioning cooling load index is 79W/m? ; The cooling load index of the multi-line air conditioner is 70W/m? .
3 Heating design
3.1 Heat source
The heat source of this project is a dual heat source design (Figure 1), one way is a municipal heat source, and the return water temperature is 95/70C for winter heating of the project, and the other way is a self-provided heat source, using a LR-29 gas-fired heating hot water boiler with rated load 1650kW is used for auxiliary heating during transition season and when the municipal heat source is unstable. The boiler is designed to return a temperature of 85/609C. In this project, radiant floor heating is adopted except for underground garages and rooms that are not suitable for floor radiant heating. Floor radiant heating is designed to supply and return water at a temperature of 50/40C, and the boiler outlet water is heated by the intelligent heat exchanger group. The negative two-story underground garage and the hotel annex rooms are all heated by radiators, and the return water is provided directly by the boiler.
3.2 Radiant floor heating
The floor radiant heating main pipe of this project adopts the horizontal same-program system of downward supply and downward return, and control valves (gate valve for water supply and flow balance valve for return water) are installed on the horizontal horizontal branch pipes connected to the water supply standpipe. The intelligent heat exchange unit comes with an outdoor climate compensator, which can adjust the flow rate of the variable frequency water pump according to the outdoor temperature, so as to achieve the purpose of energy saving. The indoor floor heating layout is in accordance with the principle of one or more water collectors and distributors in a room. An automatic temperature control valve is set on the return pipe of the collector and distributor, which is connected to the indoor temperature sensor control module by wire. Ensure that the indoor temperature of all rooms can be adjusted independently. Figure 2 is a floor plan of the negative floor heating.
3.3 Radiator heating
The radiator heating system of the underground garage and the hotel auxiliary rooms are controlled separately after the boiler is discharged. The underground garage system adopts the horizontal series heating system, the hotel auxiliary rooms adopt the horizontal single-pipe leaping system, and the main pipes adopt the horizontal same program system. Self-operated thermostatic valves are installed on the radiators in the hotel's auxiliary rooms.
4 Ventilation and air conditioning design
4.1 Air conditioning cold and heat sources
The project is located next to the tourist scenic area. In summer, the temperature during the day is about 6~89C lower than that of the urban area, and 10 at night. C around. The temperature in winter is 2-6 on average lower than the urban temperature. C, the cooling demand is small. Therefore, except for catering, meeting rooms, swimming pools and presidential suites, there is no summer air conditioning in other areas of this project. The three-story presidential suite adopts its own independent set of VRV intelligent central air-conditioning system. The cold source is set in the negative two-story air-conditioning machine room, with a centrifugal chiller with a cooling capacity of 823kW and a chilled water supply and return temperature of 12/79C. To meet the air conditioning demand of the building at the maximum cooling load. The cooling water of the refrigeration unit is provided by a single 220m'/h glass fiber reinforced plastic square cooling tower installed in the outdoor landscape part of the hotel. The cooling water is recycled by the cooling water circulating pump. In winter, only the hotel’s terraced lecture hall and hotel atrium need air-conditioning and heating. The fan coils in these two areas use a four-pipe system. In winter, the heat source is directly supplied from the boiler room heat exchange station, and the temperature of the return water is 50/40C. The heat exchange unit is used in combination with the floor heating heat exchanger, saving investment and space.
4.2 Air conditioning system
There are a variety of rooms with different functions from the first floor to the first floor of the hotel, including banquet halls, all-day dining halls, restaurant boxes, meeting rooms, sports gyms, etc. In places such as small boxes and small meeting rooms, fan coils and fresh air systems are used; other rooms with larger areas, such as banquet halls and all-day dining halls, will use single-air duct fixed-air full-air air conditioning systems. Send hot air in winter and cool air in summer to ensure that the space is always at a more comfortable temperature. Due to the different time periods, the cooling load requirements of the air-conditioning are also different. The remaining air-conditioned rooms adopt double-pipe fan coils and fresh air systems. The outdoor air is processed by the fresh air ventilator installed in the ceiling, and then passed through the glass fiber reinforced plastic insulation air. The road is sent to each room according to the ventilation requirements. In winter, the outdoor fresh air is heated by the fresh air unit to meet the indoor temperature requirements and then sent to each room. The banquet hall and the staircase lecture hall are densely staffed and require a large amount of fresh air, so heat recovery is installed. Device to recover the cold/heat of exhaust air to pre-cool/heat fresh air. Figure 3 is a plan view of the negative layer air conditioning system.
4.3 Ventilation system
1) The second-floor water pump room, boiler room, heat exchange station, air-conditioning machine room, power distribution room, etc. adopt mechanical air supply and exhaust systems. Normally air supply and exhaust, boiler rooms and power distribution rooms consider accidental ventilation. Explosion-proof fan.
2) The underground garage adopts an air inducer and a mechanical smoke exhaust ventilation system, which is usually used for supply and exhaust, and for exhaust and supplementary air in case of fire. Hot air curtains are set at the exits of the underground garage.
3) The inner corridors over 20m above the ground are all equipped with mechanical smoke exhaust systems to make air naturally.
4) The power distribution room on the negative second floor adopts a gas fire extinguishing system with automatic pressure relief ports.
5) The central kitchen on the second floor and the first floor will be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system (exhaust fume system to exhaust the kitchen exhaust hood/full kitchen exhaust system), and at the same time, there will be supplementary air (cold or hot air) at the stovetop. Improve the air environment in the kitchen and maintain the negative pressure in the room to prevent the leakage of odors.
6) The guest room is divided into a bathroom with a mechanical exhaust system. The vertical exhaust duct is responsible for the exhaust of the bathroom, and the mechanical exhaust is collected in the three-story top mezzanine to ensure the beauty of the hotel's sloped roof. The air supply is natural air supply and exhaust air. The reason why the road did not consider going out of the roof directly is that the hotel has an overall sloped roof. Too many exhaust ducts affect the appearance and are not conducive to waterproofing.
7) Exhaust air is set up in public toilets and other places, and the supplementary air is supplemented by part of the hotel's air conditioning system or natural supplementary air is used to ensure the exhaust effect.
8) Set up a mechanical ventilation system in the garbage room to improve the indoor environment and maintain the indoor negative pressure to prevent the leakage of odor.
4.4 Automatic control
The air conditioning fan coil is equipped with a temperature controller with a three-speed switch, and the return pipe is equipped with an electric two-way valve. The temperature controller installed in the room automatically enters and adjusts the amount of cold and hot water in the fan coil, and the temperature is kept at Within the required range, in the air conditioner room, there is a pressure difference controller between the chilled water supply and return headers, and the bypass electric regulating valve between the supply and return headers can be controlled by setting the pressure difference to achieve self-control and energy saving purposes. A dynamic balance valve is installed on the return pipe of the chiller. Ensure that the system changes the dynamic flow as required at any time.
The fresh air unit on the first floor is equipped with a high-sensitivity temperature controller, a temperature sensor at the air outlet, and an electric regulating valve on the return pipe to control the temperature of the fresh air after treatment. The air filter of the fresh air unit is equipped with a pressure difference switch. When the pressure difference on both sides of the air filter exceeds the set value, a warning will be issued to indicate that the air filter needs to be cleaned or replaced. At the same time, the fresh air unit is equipped with antifreeze protection control, relying on water flow Indicator, once the water supply branch is cut off or underflow, the system will immediately turn off the fan and prompt an alarm.
1) The project is a multifunctional resort hotel in Urumqi County, Urumqi, Xinjiang. It has a large volume and diverse internal functions. Therefore, there are many heating and cooling methods for heating and air conditioning systems. For different functions, large banquet halls, lecture halls The air-conditioning water system needs to use four pipes, and the rest of the water systems use two pipes; for other air-conditioned rooms, conventional fan coils and fresh air air conditioning systems are used, and floor radiant heating is used in winter; some rooms with large demand for fresh air use heat recovery Fresh air ventilation unit. The floor heating system uses separate room temperature control, and the radiator system is also equipped with a temperature control adjustment device.
2) The heating and air-conditioning systems of this project adopt the horizontal same-program system, and balance valves are installed on the branches and risers. The system has no hydraulic imbalance.
3) The fresh air is made of glass fiber reinforced plastic ducts and sealed with rubber gaskets to reduce leakage and reliability; the exhaust air of guest rooms and public toilets is also made of UPVC pipes, which saves construction time and costs.